Surface-mount PCB Assembly refers to the process of manufacturing and designing PCBs or Printed Circuit Boards without drilling holes as in the Pin Through-Hole method. Instead, the components that require soldering are mounted directly over the surface of the PCBs. The components thus formed, are more minute and smaller than their PTH counterparts as they do not require making holes and may or may not contain leads. The equipment or accouterments required to carry out SMT comprise reflow oven, solder paste screen printer, inspection equipments, repair tools, solven cleaning products and the likes.
What to Consider while Designing an SMT

One of the main considerations while undergoing any electromechanical assembly is the thermal compatibility and this holds true for SMT as well. The packaging of the Surface Mount PCB products is something which requires attention for checking into the thermal issues.
The reliability of the final product is largely dependent on packaging as with increase in the density of the latter, there is bound to be thermal problems which affect the PCB in the whole. PCBs assembled using SMT are made of FR-4 Glass Epoxy Substrates which tend to react with ceramic packaging leading to reliability issues of the solder-joint. The CAD system is also something that needs to be considered while manufacturing SMT PCBs. Packaging moisture density, market requirements are other things which are looked into by designers before carrying out SMT assembly of PCBs.
Advantages of SMT PCB

Surface mount technology of PCB design and manufacture comes with a number of benefits making this method a more preferable one than the Through-hole one. The components of the SMT PCBs are much lighter in weight and consequently occupy much lesser space than the through-hole ones. Moreover, due to the attenuated space taken up by the components the cost for board also reduces considerably thus leading to overall saving.
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